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【骨科英语】独立宣言-The Declaration of Independence  

2016-08-14 20:10:18|  分类: 骨科英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Declaration of Independence

 IN CONGRESS, JULY 4,
1776 THE UNANIMOUS
DECLARATION OF THE
THIRTEEN UNITED
STATES OF AMERAICA      

    When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws Nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.   

在人类事务发展的过程中,当一个民族必须解除同另一个民族的联系,并按照自然法则和上帝的旨意,以独立平等的身份立于世界列国之林时,出于对人类舆论的尊重,必须把驱使他们独立的原因予以宣布。 

    We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that they are among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among them, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than t right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity, which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is usurpations, all having in direct object tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.    

 我们认为下述真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们若干不可让与的权利,其中包括生存权、自由权和追求幸 福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人们才在他们中间建立政府,而政府的正当权利,则是经被统治者同意授予的。任何形式的政府一旦对这些目标的实现起破坏作用 时,人民便有权予以更换或废除,以建立一个新的政府。新政府所依据的原则和组织其权利的方式,务使人民认为唯有这样才最有可能使他们获得安全和幸福。若真 要审慎的来说,成立多年的政府是不应当由于无关紧要的和一时的原因而予以更换的。过去的一切经验都说明,任何苦难,只要尚能忍受,人类还是情愿忍受,也不 想为申冤而废除他们久已习惯了的政府形式。然而,当始终追求同一目标的一系列滥用职权和强取豪夺的行为表明政府企图把人民至于专制暴政之下时,人民就有权 也有义务去推翻这样的政府,并为其未来的安全提供新的保障。这就是这些殖民地过去忍受苦难的经过,也是他们现在不得不改变政府制度的原因。当今大不列颠王 国的历史,就是屡屡伤害和掠夺这些殖民地的历史,其直接目标就是要在各州之上建立一个独裁暴政。为了证明上述句句属实,现将事实公诸于世,让公正的世人作 出评判。

     He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

     He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend them.

     He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

     He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

     He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people.

     He has refused for a long time, after such dissolution, to cause others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without and convulsion within.

     He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalizing of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the condition of new appropriations of lands.

     He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent of laws for establishing judiciary powers.

     He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their office, and the amount and payment of their salary. 

     He has erected a multitude of new officers, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out our substances.

     He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislatures.

     He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil power.

    He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation.

     For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

     For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murder which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.

     For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

     For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

     For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;

     For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses;  

     For abolishing the free systems of English laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule these Colonies;

     For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments;

     For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

     He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

     He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

     He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely parallel in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

     He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

     He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

     In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petition have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

     Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them., as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

      We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled , appealing to the supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United States Colonies and Independent States; that they are absolved by from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

  

  我们认为下述真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们若干不可让与的权利,其中包括生存权、自由权和追求幸 福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人们才在他们中间建立政府,而政府的正当权利,则是经被统治者同意授予的。任何形式的政府一旦对这些目标的实现起破坏作用 时,人民便有权予以更换或废除,以建立一个新的政府。新政府所依据的原则和组织其权利的方式,务使人民认为唯有这样才最有可能使他们获得安全和幸福。若真 要审慎的来说,成立多年的政府是不应当由于无关紧要的和一时的原因而予以更换的。过去的一切经验都说明,任何苦难,只要尚能忍受,人类还是情愿忍受,也不 想为申冤而废除他们久已习惯了的政府形式。然而,当始终追求同一目标的一系列滥用职权和强取豪夺的行为表明政府企图把人民至于专制暴政之下时,人民就有权 也有义务去推翻这样的政府,并为其未来的安全提供新的保障。这就是这些殖民地过去忍受苦难的经过,也是他们现在不得不改变政府制度的原因。当今大不列颠王 国的历史,就是屡屡伤害和掠夺这些殖民地的历史,其直接目标就是要在各州之上建立一个独裁暴政。为了证明上述句句属实,现将事实公诸于世,让公正的世人作 出评判。

  他拒绝批准对公众利益最有益、最必需的法律。

  他禁止他的殖民总督批准刻不容缓、极端重要的法律,要不就先行搁置这些法律直至征得他的同意,而这些法律被搁置以后,他又完全置之不理。

  他拒绝批准便利大地区人民的其他的法律,除非这些地区的人民情愿放弃自己在自己在立法机构中的代表权;而代表权对人民是无比珍贵的,只有暴君才畏惧它。

  他把各州的立法委员召集到一个异乎寻常、极不舒适而有远离他们的档案库的地方去开会,其目的无非是使他们疲惫不堪,被迫就范。

  他一再解散各州的众议院,因为后者坚决反对他侵犯人民的权利。

  他在解散众议院之后,又长期拒绝另选他人,于是这项不可剥夺的立法权便归由普通人民来行使,致使在这其间各州仍处于外敌入侵和内部骚乱的种种危险之中。

  他力图阻止各州增加人口,为此目的,他阻挠外国人入籍法的通过,拒绝批准其他鼓励移民的法律,并提高分配新土地的条件。

  他拒绝批准建立司法权利的法律,以阻挠司法的执行。

  他迫使法官为了保住任期、薪金的数额和支付而置于他个人意志的支配之下。

  他滥设新官署,委派大批官员到这里骚扰我们的人民,吞噬他们的财物。

  他在和平时期,未经我们立法机构同意,就在我们中间维持其常备军。

  他施加影响,使军队独立于文官政权之外,并凌驾于文官政权之上。

  他同他人勾结,把我们置于一种既不符合我们的法规也未经我们法律承认的管辖之下,而且还批准他们炮制的各种伪法案, 以便任其在我们中间驻扎大批武装部队;不论这些人对我们各州居民犯下何等严重的谋杀罪,他可用加审判来庇护他们,让他们逍遥法外;他可以切断我们同世界各 地的贸易;未经我们同意便向我们强行征税;在许多案件中剥夺我们享有陪审制的权益;以莫须有的罪名把我们押送海外受审;他在一个邻省废除了英国法律的自由 制度,在那里建立专制政府,扩大其疆域,使其立即成为一个样板和合适的工具,以便向这里各殖民地推行同样的专制统治;他取消我们的许多特许状,废除我们最 珍贵的法律并从根本上改变我们各州政府的形式;他终止我们立法机构行使权力,宣称他们自己拥有在任何情况下为我们制定法律的权力。

  他们放弃设在这里的政府,宣称我们已不属他们保护之列,并向我们发动战争。

  他在我们的海域里大肆掠夺,蹂躏我们的沿海地区,烧毁我们的城镇,残害我们人民的生命。

  他此时正在运送大批外国雇佣兵,来从事其制造死亡、荒凉和暴政的勾当,其残忍与卑劣从一开始就连最野蛮的时代也难以相比,他已完全不配当一个文明国家的元首。

  他强迫我们在公海被他们俘虏的同胞拿起武器反对自己的国家,使他们成为残杀自己亲友的刽子手,或使他们死于自己亲友的手下。

  他在我们中间煽动内乱,并竭力挑唆残酷无情的印地安蛮子来对付我们边疆的居民,而众所周知,印地安人作战的准则是不分男女老幼、是非曲直,格杀勿论。

  在遭受这些压迫的每一阶段,我们都曾以最谦卑的言辞吁请予以纠正。而我们一次又一次的情愿,却只是被报以一次又一次的伤害。

  一个君主,其品格被他的每一个只有暴君才干的出的行为所暴露时,就不配君临自由的人民。

  我们并不是没有想到我们英国的弟兄。他们的立法机关想把无理的管辖权扩展到我们这里来,我们时常把这个企图通知他 们。我们也曾把我们移民来这里和在这里定居的情况告诉他们。我们曾恳求他们天生的正义感和雅量,念在同种同宗的分上,弃绝这些掠夺行为,因为这些掠夺行为 难免会使我们之间的关系和来往中断。可他们对这种正义和同宗的呼声也同样充耳不闻。因此,我们不得不宣布脱离他们,以对待世界上其他民族的态度对待他们: 同我交战者,就是敌人;同我和好者,即为朋友。

  因此我们这些在大陆会议上集会的美利坚合众国的代表们,以各殖民地善良人民的名义,并经他们授权,向世界最高裁判者申诉,说明我们的严重意向,同时郑重宣布:

  我们这些联合起来的殖民地现在是,而且按公理也应该是,独立自由的国家;我们对英国王室效忠的全部义务,我们与大不列颠王国之间大不列颠一切政治联系全部断绝,而且必须断绝。

  作为一个独立自由的国家,我们完全有权宣战、缔和、结盟、通商和采取独立国家有权采取的一切行动。

  我们坚定地信赖神明上帝的保佑,同时以我们的生命、财产和神圣的名誉彼此宣誓来支持这一宣言。

   〔说明〕

  杰斐逊起草了《独立宣言》的第一稿,富兰克林等人又进行了润色。大陆会议对此稿又进行了长时间的、激烈的辩论,最终作出了重大的修改。特别是在 佐治亚和卡罗来纳代表们的坚持下,删去了杰斐逊对英王乔治三世允许在殖民地保持奴隶制和奴隶买卖的有力谴责。这一部分的原文是这样的:

  他的人性本身发动了残酷的战争,侵犯了一个从未冒犯过他的远方民族的最神圣的生存权和自由权;他诱骗他们,并把他们运往另一半球充当奴隶,或使他们惨死在运送途中。

  托马斯.杰斐逊(1743-1826),生于弗吉尼亚的一个富裕家庭。曾就读于威廉-玛丽学院。1767年成为律师,1769年当选为弗吉尼亚下院议院。他积极投身于独立运动之中,并代表弗吉尼亚出席大陆会议。他曾两次当选弗吉尼亚州长。1800年当选美国总统。

  杰斐逊在为自己的墓碑而作的墓志铭中这样写到:
  这里埋葬着托马斯.杰斐逊,美国《独立宣言》的作者,弗吉尼亚宗教自由法规的制定者和弗吉尼亚大学之父。

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